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  Camboda.com
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Khmer Civilization and Tradition (in English)Posted: 2009-10-01 23:13:47   Replies: 0
Cambodia Media (2)

Broadcast journalism
Newspaper reports are read aloud daily on radio and on morning television, greatly increasing the reach of the print media in a country with an adult literacy rate of less than 70 per cent. However, the practice highlights the rudimentary state of local broadcast journalism.
The most repected Khmer-language news services are foreign: Radio Free Asia and the Voice of America. In the past their reach was limited by their inability to secure an FM licence, which restricted them to broadcasting on shortwave. More recently they have been able to reach a much wider audience by relaying their news service on the privately-owned Sambok Khmum Radio, better known as Radio Beehive FM 105 MHz. Meanwhile, Sambok Khmum itself has been the subject of licence restrictions for its often critical views of government actions.
Foreign aid funding has assisted the development of some local news programmes, particularly on National Radio Kampuchea (RNK), which broadcasts the Rendezvous current affairs programme and Business Edge, a studio show intended to encourage the growth of small and medium-size entrepreneurs. Depending on funding availability and foreign aid priorities, there are also bursts of AIDS awareness messages, domestic violence prevention campaigns and the like.
Most recently, through a talkback programme implemented with the assistance of ABC Radio Australia with funding support from the Australian Agency for International Development, RNK now has a professionally-trained talkback team which produces the one-hour programme 'Our Life Our Society' twice weekly. This programme is rebroadcast the following day and also relayed live to four provincial FM stations through the Ministry of Information's Provincial Information Service.

Regulation
Responsibility for regulation of the media sector in Cambodia is shared between the Ministry of Information and the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, with the Minister of the Interior as the ultimate upholder and enforcer of the law.
While the duties of these ministries in relation to the media are set out in their respective Decrees and Sub Decrees, there is at present no comprehensive legislation relating to broadcast, print and digital media in Cambodia.
The only law currently in existence in relation to media is the Press Law of 1996. This guarantees the right to preserve the confidentiality of journalistic sources, prohibits pre-publication censorship and upholds the right of access to government-held information, but also authorises the Ministry of Information and Ministry of Interior to confiscate newspapers and empowers the Ministry of Information to suspend any newspaper for a maximum of 30 days for 'damaging national security and political stability'.
An overarching Media Law is currently under preparation.

Training
Since the early 1990s many short courses for working journalists have been provided by aid donors keen to advance their broader aims of supporting human rights and democracy. However, only more recently have Cambodians at home been able to undertake degree-level studies in journalism.
The longest-standing journalism training organisation in Phnom Penh is the Cambodia Communications Institute (CCI), which was established in 1994 with support from UNESCO and the Danish Government and was initially located within the Ministry of Information compound. Over the years it has offered a variety of skills-based short training courses in media and journalism for working journalists and media professionals, including courses on specialty areas such as AIDS, court reporting and environmental reporting.
In 2002 CCI became affiliated with the Royal University of Phnom Penh, becoming an integral part of the Universitys new Department of Media and Communications. In addition to its ongoing workshops and seminars for practitioners, it has recently launched a one-year Diploma course in Journalism. UNESCO continues to provide assistance to CCI with equipment, techniques and finance.
The Royal University of Phnom Penh's Department of Media and Communications itself was set up in 2001 within the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. It offers a four-year programme in Media and Communication, supported by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Since that time students in the programme have taken their internships in local radio and television stations, newspapers, wire services and other media companies. Through donor aid, some have served their internships overseas; two students recently went to Germany to spend three months at the German television station DWTV.
From 2002 to 2004, the New York-based Independent Journalism Foundation (IJF) ran a regional training centre in Phnom Penh, where working journalists from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Việt Nam took courses led by foreign trainers and conducted in English. The centre recently shut down, but IJFs work in the region continues through programmes designed for specific media clientele. IJF courses have an emphasis on acquiring practical skills and are led by veteran journalists. Their training work in Phnom Penh continues through three-month in-service courses conducted in Khmer, led by chief instructor Reach Sambath, formerly of Agence France Presse (AKP).
Short-term journalism training programmes and fellowships have also been offered by various NGOs, including the Asia Foundation, IMPACS and InterPress Service.
In the absence of media technical training programmes at Cambodia's colleges and universities, most radio and television companies offer basic in-house training in radio and TV production to their own staff. Both National Radio Kampuchea (RNK) and National Television Kampuchea (TVK) have hosted occasional technical training programmes involving visiting experts from Europe (particularly Germany) and Asia (Japan, Korea, China, Việt Nam, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka), but such programmes are in short supply in relation to the actual need.

Broadcasting archives
National Television Kampuchea (TVK) runs the national Broadcasting Archives, which house a range of programmes (thus far TVK programmes only) dating back to the early 1990s, stored on Betacam SP, VHS, S-VHS and U-Matic tape.

Reference: Cambodia Cultural Profile

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